Artífices de la Victoria

General Hazel


Hazel and Don Javier Aragorri be one of the most prestigious in the Spanish army at the time of the uprising against Napoleon's generals. He managed to defeat General Dupont at the Battle of Bailen on July 19, 1808, thus becoming the first European general who could defeat an army of Napoleon.

General CastañoThe April 22, 1758 born in Madrid in a family that enjoyed great favor at the court of Charles III, which was worth it to be named captain of infantry at the age of ten years. To validate such honorary position, had to validate his appointment studying Noble Seminary of Madrid. Subsequently he completed studies at the Academy of Mathematics of Barcelona. In 1774 he joined his regiment as Captain Savoy Grenadiers. At 22 in 1780 took part in the blockade of Gibraltar, and the following year, under the command of the Duke of Crillon, participated in the conquest of Menorca being promoted to Lieutenant Colonel.

The summer of 1782 fighting boldly in the fourth attempted siege of Gibraltar , and four years later , he moved to Oran , where he " fought against the Moors " until the Treaty of September 1791 Spain abandoned the land that had belonged since 1509. Subsequently, Brown distinguished himself in the defense of Ceuta and promoted colonel , getting the command of the Regiment of Africa, which fought against the French between 1793 and 1795 in the Western Pyrenees . In his heroic defense of Monte San Marcial is seriously wounded when a bullet penetrated below the ear, difficult terrain at the end of a very steep hill , even for someone in good physical condition , but his men , encouraged by the loyalty to his boss, resolved to go lying on the ground standing on the shoulders of each other and thus to reach the position of the injured and thus passing it to lower it on their bodies to a more accessible area . In gratitude to this action, donned the uniform Hazel Regiment Africa the rest of his days. Her courage would also rewarded with promotion to Brigadier in October 1793 , although the war ended with the use of Field Marshal , obtained in February 1795.

After the war by the Treaty of Basiela, at 37, and with the use of Brigadier, is exiled to Badajoz for expressing unfavorable judgments about Godoy.

In August 1800 contributed to reject your orders troops to the landing of the English in the vicinity of El Ferrol. In October 1802 he was promoted to lieutenant general and took the Command of the Campo de Gibraltar and there I had to disassemble two outlandish projects Godoy: seize, at the instigation of adventurous Sunday Badia, several places in Morocco and with the direct collaboration of former inmate Juan Solano and "a contingent of prisoners from the prison in Ceuta" reconquer Gibraltar.

In 1808 Hazel was meant in the Campo de Gibraltar, and from April maintained secret contacts with the British Governor of Gibraltar, Sir Hew Dalrymple, who requested military and economic aid in the case of open conflict against the French. On May 26, received a message from the Board of Sevilla to join the uprising , which he did immediately by him and his 9,000 men to the orders of the same . The Board appointed him commander in chief of a makeshift army was framed and instructed in a few weeks with regular and volunteer troops . With this army managed to defeat General Dupont at the Battle of Bailen on July 19, 1808 , thus becoming the first European general who could defeat an army of Napoleon. In that victory contributed mightily Spanish general Teodoro Reding and the Marquis de Coupigny , but it must be admitted that the plan of operations as resounding victory was conceived by Hazel , who , moreover , he scolded have been left after idle for three weeks , a fact that facilitated the withdrawal behind the Ebro river to the French armies of Valencia, Madrid and Castilla La Nueva , including King Joseph Bonaparte and his court. But the truth is that Hazel obeyed the instructions of the Board of Sevilla , who deemed timely pursuit of the enemy, for the garrisons of the Andalusian region were not adequately avitualladas , and " the need to remain watchful of the 20,000 French surrendered Bailen .

What's great victory achieved, Hazel received the use of Captain General.

In 1810 he was appointed member of the 1st Council of Regency. In 1811 he took command of V Corps, stationed in Extremadura. In 1812 he was also given command of the VI and VII Army Corps; these three bodies joined the IV Corps at the end of the war.

After the war, Brown was named Captain General of Catalonia, where repressed the liberal ruling of Luis Lacy (1817) and signed his death warrant. In 1820 resigned to get the Liberal Triennium (1820-1823).

Called constitutional triennium ended in October 1823, with the resentful Hazel health took refuge in the residence of his friend the Duke of Infantry, in Guadalajara, then returned to Madrid and finally settled in Bailen, instead legitimate glory.

In September 1832, the seriously ill Fernando VII, Hazel was appointed Captain General of New Castile and subsequently relinquished that office for the presidency of the Council of State, where he summoned the Cortes swore as Princess of Asturias to the Infanta Isabel.

General Castanos ancianoIn July 1833, Fernando VII granted the title of Duke of Bailen and the death of the monarch following September 29, by order of his will, was one of eight members of the Governing Council to advise the Queen Regent Maria Cristina . His advanced age -75 years in 1833 - explains that during the First Carlist War was not responsible military positions of importance. However, proclaimed a Royal Charter, Martinez de la Rosa, Brown served as president of the Estate of Peers. He was appointed senator for Catalonia in 1837 and in 1838 he succeeded Agustín Argüelles as tutor of the future Queen Elizabeth II and her sister the Infanta Luisa Fernanda to the coming of age of the first. A year later, he assumed command of the Royal Corps of Halberdiers and the French government awarded him the Legion of Honor in Great Cruz grade.

At age 92, Queen Elizabeth II conferred the title of Marquis of Portugalete and died unmarried, covered with glory and honor, at age 94, the September 29, 1852, ten days after the death of his friend and colleague the Duke of Wellington. Buried in the Pantheon of Illustrious Men of Madrid until 1963, the year in which their remains are Bailen solemnly transferred to and deposited in the Church of the Incarnation in original mausoleum. The General Brown rests in the city of his glory with Zocueca Virgin, patroness of Bailen, which was very devoted and he donated his military decorations in 1823.



General Reading

Bild Theodor Reding 72

Governor of Malaga (1806-1808), Theodore von Reding Swiss General Biberegg was serving Spain, chief architect of the victory of the Spanish army against the French at the Battle of Bailen 1808 before Napoleon's troops, led by General Dupont and Gerra hero of Roussillon.

Theodor von Reding Biberegg born on July 5, 1755 in Switzerland. In 1769 and 14 he began his military career in Spain, highlighting since that time companies such as Menorca (1781-1782), the Pyrenees (1793 to 1795) and Portugal (1801).

In 1794 he was appointed Field Marshal after the action of Irun. Eight years later he is destined to Malaga with his unit, but it would trim its first battalion in Granada for being there the Captaincy General of Military Region. In 1803 he was appointed member of the Board of Health, where the recognition of Malaga win people for their exemplary action to mitigate the epidemic of yellow fever that was raging at that time to the city.

The April 21, 1806, King Charles IV Political Military Governor and Mayor of Málaga Governor appoints, doing a great job of office in all aspects, the proof will be the publication of the "Proclamation of the Good Government on 19 August that year.

Year 1808, begins the War of Independence, Reding junta Malaga and is appointed General in Chief of the troops of the Kingdom of Granada and later Commanding General of the 1st Division of the Army of Andalusia. The July 19, 1808 will play a prominent being the architect of the first defeat of the invincible open Napoleonic troops to carry out some changes to the plan outlined by General Hazel Porcuna field role.

After being moved to Catalonia and will be promoted to Captain General. In February 1809 fight in Valls, this being his last battle which suffer several saber wounds, died on April 23, 1809.

His remains now rest in a mausoleum, the first burial in the cemetery of Tarragona.



General San Martin

Smartin 72

The Argentine military José Francisco de San Martín, descended from military family, he moved to Spain his parents at the age of 5 years, where he began his military career. He fought in North Africa and fought the Napoleonic forces, participating in the Battle of Bailen. His whose campaigns were decisive for the independence of Argentina, Chile and Peru.

The "Father of the Nation" as it is recognized in Argentina, José de San Martín Matorras born on February 25, 1778 in Uruguay, specifically in the town of Yapeyú. His father was born in Spain was lieutenant governor and his mother was the niece of a conqueror of the Chaco.

In 1786 he moved with his parents where he joined the Noble Seminary of Madrid. Three years later he starts his military career in the regiment of Murcia. Fight campaign in Africa fighting in Melilla and Oran and in 1797 was promoted to second lieutenant for his actions against the French in the Pyrenees.

During the period that follows, Equity struggle in southern Spain, Gibraltar and Cadiz, with the rank of captain 2nd Light Infantry.

In 1808, San Martín was promoted by the Governing Board for the post of assistant 1st Regiment Volunteer Field Mayor. Distinguished for his actions against the French, then becomes captain of the regiment of Bourbon.

It stands at the Battle of Bailen, rising to lieutenant colonel and awarded gold medal na. It will continue to fight against the French in the army of the allies: Spain, Portugal and England. Fighting under General Beresford at the Battle of Albuera. Meet Lord Macduff, Scottish nobleman, who introduces him to the secret lodges who plotted for the independence of South America. Through him I obtained a passport to travel to England, where it was found in 1811 with Spanish compatriots in Latin: Alvear, Zapiola, Andrés Bello, Tomas Guido, among others. All were part of a lodge who had founded the "Precursor" Miranda, who, along with Bolivar, and was fighting for the independence of America Venezuela.

In January 1812, Martin embarked for Buenos Aires in the British frigate George Canning, which was entrusted with the creation of the Regiment of Mounted Grenadiers (which now bears his name), who triumphed in the Battle of San Lorenzo.

Later he was named head of the Northern Army, replacing General Manuel Belgrano. So conceived his plan of South American emancipation, realizing that the patriot victory would consolidate scoring only realistic nuclei in the continent.

Appointed governor of Cuyo, located in the city of Mendoza started his project after organizing the Army of the Andes crossed with the same range of the same name and led the liberation of Chile, in the battles of Chacabuco and Maipú. Using a fleet organized in Chile, attacked the center of Spanish power in South America, Lima, declaring the independence of Peru in 1821. Shortly after it was found in Guayaquil Simon Bolivar, and after a brief interview, he gave his army and the goal of finishing the liberation of Peru. San Martin left for Europe, where he died on August 17, 1850.



Maria Bellido. The courage of a hero.

bellidoThe heroine of Bailen born January 28, 1755 in the town of Jaen Porcuna the name María Inés Juliana Vallejo Bellido in a humble family of nine children. There he met a young native and resident of Bailen, whose name was Luis Domingo Cobo Muela whom he married. Once married they established their home on Calle Las Eras of our town, now known as Sebastian Elcano Street.

The feat for which will become part of our story begins to emerge on July 18, 1808 with the skirmishes that herald the beginning of a momentous event. "The Culiancha" nickname which will be named by their profuse hips with it at the time 53 years old, and like other residents of the town of Bailen would take active part in the battle. The men joined directly to the troops; elders lent supplies and health services, and children and women contributed to the element that was most needed in the battlefield, water.

Among all those brave women, our protagonist will come into play when directly addressing the General Reding, gave him water, and just at the time when the vessel rose, a bullet broke the cantarillo. She did not flinch. He picked up the pot where he had been a bit of water and offered it to the General, who praised its work and offered to reward.

This resilience and courage, and action that made ​​his life at risk, in combat and instead more killed by enemy artillery, made ​​our countrywoman a popular heroine.

The oddest thing about this fact was that after the victory of the Spanish troops, the woman went to the most complete oblivion. So much so that it was thought that this character was a product of the popular imagination, or creating heroes victors they needed to highlight their victories.

MARIA BELLIDO-4This will be enhanced with the fact that for a time confuse María Inés María Juliana with her sister Paula Bellido. After some research through the registration of birth of each of them leads us to understand that the latter could not be, because he was born in 1743 and in the year taking place battle would have 65, advanced age to perform the duties that would lead to fame; and especially in those times, that people that age were practically elderly.

Maria Bellido is predestined to become a legend as usual with the great myths of history, as just eight die onths after that event, namely the March 7, 1809.

Ultimately , legend or reality , Bailen remembers his local hero as demonstrated over time and is reflected in events like the one held in 1862 when Queen Elizabeth II on her visit to the City of Bailen during your trip to Andalusia the authorities of the town given away to his Majesty with a case of holy stick , containing a silver and filigree silver and gold cantarito to fire, bay leaves held between a bullet shrapnel . The provincial deputy and poet Don Francisco Rentero that place , to make the offer , made ​​to his Majesty a brief review of the historical record that contained the symbol offered . She told a detailed story of the act committed by María Bellido . The bullet was the one that gave the basis of the French ranks broke the pitcher of heroin and was kept for many years by Maria Josefa Malpesa , niece of our character, in return for which it received a pension of the Royal House.

Bailen pays tribute to the heroic woman , besides keeping his memory alive . First , dedicating a street, where according to tradition lived and died the star of this little story. Even a very unique first centenary of the Battle of Bailen remember , the stone which was placed in front of the building which had been home with this inscription is preserved : "The workers of Bailen Maria Bellido, prototype value and charity the centenary of his heroic feat : July 19, 1808 to 1908 " . In the Place of General Brown , a monumental fountain topped by a female statue neoclassic promised gift by Queen Elizabeth II is preserved when his 1862 visit . Though this statue symbolizes the " Spain Victorious " , the town of Bailen always has been identified as Maria Bellido and maintaining its traditional feel and nothing and nobody can change that this monument is the representation of our popular heroine.



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